Saturday, 20 July 2013
Kabila lolote ulimwenguni, hutokana na mambo mane (manne) yakiwemo jadi, Kazi, mji na sifa za watu. Na upande mwengine nayo lugha hutokamana na mazingira maalum ya watu na utamaduni wao. Ikiwa kabila ni desturi na mila za watu, au ni watu walofungamana na kuwa na tabia na nyendo ambazo zitawatofautisha wao na watu wengine, basi waswahili wana mila zao na desturi zao kama makabila mangine(mengine) ulimwenguni. Kama kwenye maingiliano ya kibinadamu k.m ndoa, majina, itikadi za pepo na kadhalika, basi liko kabila la waswahili lenye mambo kama hayo.
Kabila la waswahili, utamaduni wao, na lugha yao hupatikana ile sehemu y anti (nchi) iliyopatikana na maji ya pwani na mwambao wa Afrika mashariki. Wenye urefu wa kilomita 1500 pamoja na visiwa vilivyopakana na mwambao wenyewe. Kiswahili ni lugha iliyotapakaa na kujulikana kote ulimwenguni na hata kuliko lugha nyengine yoyote ya Afrika.
Kuna rai kuwa neon “waswahili” lilitokea pale Muhammad Bin Abdallah Ibn Batuta na wasafiri wenzake walofika miji ya mwambao mwaka 1331 B.K. na kummuliza kijana wa kingozi, “Man ha ulaii”? kuwa wao kina nani? Akawajibu sisi ni As- Sawahili yaani wenyeji wa pwaa hizi. Sahil ni neon la asili ya kiarabu na wingi wake sawahil yaani pwani (upwa) na watu wa bara arabu wakakwita huku Al-Sahili au as-sawahiliyy na wengine hudai neon “waswahili” latokana “wa-ziwa-hili”
Lakini kabla ya ya kuja ibn Batuta watu hao walikuwa wakiitwa wangozi, kutokana na mapokezi ya wazee wa kale wa Mombasa (Mfunzi) ni kua watu hawa walikuwa wakipima mashamba kwa vipande vya ngozi. Kasha jina hilo likabadilika na kuitwa wavisai ama wakisai kwa kuwa walikuwa ni watu wakutoa visa na mwisho ndiyo kuitwa Waswahili.
Lifwatalo ni shairi la kingozi limetungwa na Ustadh Ahmad Juma Bhalo (Ustadh Bhalo)
Mwanzimle mlekele, ni mwina wa bangu moyo
Moyo mtipi wa male, yasofupika maziyo
Maziyo maku si mbale, maningayo sifumbile
Siyo ndmi si nga soyo, maningayo simbile
(Taa ya Umalenga u.k 22)
Licha ya Waswahili kuwa wenyeji wa kitambo kuliko makabila mengine kwa mwenye kuelewa tarekhe (histria) vizuri. Kinachosikitisha na kushangaza ni kwamba kuwa lugha hii tukufu nay a kale ni ya kigeni, yaani asili yake si Afrika. Wanao shika kani (kulitiliya nguvu jambo) na kulipigiya upatu suala hilo si rahisi kutamka fikra zao, kwa kucheleya kuthibitisha kuwa ni wajinga wa histria ingawa Kiswahili kimethibitishwa kuwa ni lugha asili ya kiafrika bila kusaza shaka yoyote.
Kuna na wenye fikra ya kuwa utamaduni wa Kiswahili ni wa kigeni, na kupinga kuwepo kwa watu waitwao waswahili kwa kusingizia kuwa maneno ya Kiswahili mangi (mengi) yamefanana na kiarabu. Dai hilo tukilipima vizuri tutaona halina mashiko maana takriban lugha zote ulimwenguni zimeazimana maneno. Kwa mfano hebu tutizame kiingereza kilivyoazima maneno kutoka lugha ya Kiarabu.
Na maneno yenyewe ni kama yafwatayo;
1. Amber (anbar)
2. Crimson (Karmazi)
3. Elixir (ikseer)
4. Carat (Kirat)
5. Cotton (al-Kutn)
6. Sherbet (Sharabat)
7. Tahini (tahina)
8. Clipher /zero (sifr)
9. Mask/mascra (mascara)
10. Alcohol (al-kohool)
11. Hazard (zahr)
12. Caliber (kaleb)
13. Jar (Ka’leb)
14. Jar (jarra)
BASI KWANINI KIZUNGU KISIAMBIWE NI KIARABU LAKINI KISWAHILI KUWA NI KIARABU??
Na ale wanaokubali kuwepo kwa waswahili hutiya ila na kusema ati si kabila safi, na imetanganya (imechanganya) yaani kuambiwa Kiswahili ni lugha ya kigeni hapa Afrika mashariki. Madai haya yalizuka tu baada ya Africa kutawaliwa na waingereza, maana kabla ya ukoloni hapakuwako na shaka yoyote juu ya kuwepo kwa waswahili, wala lugha yao wala utamaduni wao.
Tete hizi za tuhuma za waswahili zilianza kuwashwa wakati wa ukoloni wa kiingereza, na zikabiririka zaidi pale nchi za Afrika mashariki zilipokaribia kuwa huru. Kwa mfano wazungu walikuwa hawakubali kuwa mwafrika ana ustaarabu au jambo lolote la kuweza kuonyesha ulimwengu umiliki wa jambo Fulani. Ndipo leo tukaambiwa kuwa miji ya Kiswahili ni ya kiarabu kwa ajili ya milango yaliotongwa (chongwa) kwa nakshi za kupendeza, mavazi, majumba na kadhalika lakini ukiwauliza mambo haya yanatoka wapi sehemu za Arabuni hakuna awezaye kukujibu.
Shihabudin Chiragdin na Mathias Mnyapala; Historia ya Kiswahili.
Ahmad Nassir Juma Bhalo; Taa ya Umalenga
Shihabudin Chiragdin; Kiswahili tokea ubantu hadi ki – standard Swahili
John Ayto; Dictionary of foreign words in English
Shihabudin Chiragdin; Kiswahili na wenyewe
BY NAJEEB AHMAD NASSIR JUMA BHALO
Cell No. 0729-906-761
Thursday, 11 July 2013
The following is needed during and after the birth of newborn baby
How the baby is prepared after the birth
- Prayers are said to both the mother and the baby
- Prayers are said to the babys ear ( prayers like the one calling people for prayers “ Allah Akbar* 3)
- The baby is given a name
- Vigwe ,mvuje and nyimbili are tied to the legs and hands of the baby as protection for the baby. It is believed that this can protect the baby from evil spirit.
- Honey and subili is given to the baby first before breastfeeding ( kugagamua koo). It is believed that honey make the baby taste the sweet and the good deeds while subili; the taste of better and hard times in life.
- Wanja is applied to the babies hands, legs and face( on the face a star or a moon sign is drawn).
- A Pit is dug for the burial of the placenta
- On the seventh day the baby is taken out to feel the sun and coconuts juice is sprinkle on the face as a sign of rain.
- The baby is taken round the house to see where the bedroom, the bathroom and the setting room are( the baby is told this is the bedroom, this is the setting room and e.t.c).
- During the forty days a big feast is done for both the mother and the baby ( this is called akika)
- On this day the mother is free and clean she can now beautify her self with henna and liwa.
Other things which are done to the baby
Mvuje stem is tied on a piece of black thick thread then tied on the leg or hand of the baby. This is done as protection for the baby from evil spirit.
A Bronze ring
A bronze ring is put to boost the baby in walking, this is done if the baby delays to walk.
Wanja is applied to the baby's face to hid the beautiful face of the baby it is done intensional to avoid people recognizing the face of the baby.
Muru is a solid traditional medicine which is mixed with water, the paste is then applied to the head of the baby. This is done when the head of the baby is soft or takes along time to harden.
Khadija Issa Twahir.
Wednesday, 10 July 2013
|Uti wa Peremendi|
Uti wa peremendi ni uti ulotiwa maridadi au mapambo ya karatasi za ragi ragi au zakungara na kupachikwa peremendi.
Uti huu hutengezewa watoto siku za mfungo au mandari hasa mandari ya kukaribishwa mwezi mtukufu wa Ramadhani. Maalumu siku ya kukaribisha mwezi wa Ramadhani.
Watu huenda kuangalia mwezi kwa shime na vigelegele na watoto wao waki chukua nyuti za peremendi.
Kujipumbaza kwa kula peremendi moja moja na kurukaruka kwa furaha na nyuti zao. Wakiimba kasinda za kukurubisha mwezi Mtukufu wa Ramadhani kasida ( nyimbo) kama:
|Children carrying Uti wa Peremendi|
Marahaba ya sharu Ramadhani *2
Maraba ya sharu saada waibada* 2
Khadija Issa Twahir
Lamu Fort Musuems.
This is a stage whereby boys had successfully gone through the circumcision trials and were now men who could marry and be admitted to Gusii governing councils. Their education in the ways of men tactics of war was not complete until they lived in ebisarate. Ebisarate were clan villages that was scattered in all Gusii locations in which the cattle were kept and all young men slept. No woman was allowed, except to bring food and to fetch milk. The ebisarate were strongly fenced wattle and had moats around them and more often, there was an outer fence.
Cattle were taken to the ebisarate by young men. Even young men who had no cattle went to Ebisarate taking with them their spears and shields. These young men were not only to learn and practice tactics of war, but also to take part in cattle grazing. The middle aged and elderly men who acted as leaders and educators also lived in Ebisarate. The young men were taught about the importance of hard work, defense of their group, grazing cattle, how to make shields and spears and how to use them.
Because these young men who live in Ebisarate were many ranging from 20-30, the cattle were grazed in rotation. The youth and the group of youths should have their turn. At the end, good grazers were rewarded by being given enough amaguta (This is a cream from the cow’s milk) and each received meat from a slaughtered cow which he took home to their parents. The quantity of Amaguta and meat that was given to each young boy was governed by his ability toward the understanding the rules of Egesarate especially co- operation.
These young men were instructed that to succeed in life, they have to Co- operate in defending their cattle, their clan and the nation incase of any invasion They were instructed that co-operation was necessary in building Ebisarate to the Gusii activities such as agricultural work and building houses that was an extension shown by their parents in amasaga, ebisangio and ebibosano. All these meaning a group of people performing cooperation together.
If the young boys were disobedient in following up the rules of egesarate (that is any of the young boys) he could be denied his share of milk, meat and Amaguta even if these items were produced by his own cow.
Daniel Momanyi Ogondo, NMK Main Library
Stella Nyambariga (NMK Planning)
KUTIA MUI HIJABUNI (KURINGISHA NGOMBE, SADAKA YA MUI) (Village Sacrifices for Disaster in Old Swahili )
Kutia mui hijabuni ni sadaka ya mui hufanywa kukinga mui katika balaa fulani kama balaa ya njaa,ugonjwa,vita au janga lolote linalokabili mui huo.
Sadaka huchangwa na wenye mui kila nyumba hutoa mchango wake kulingana na uwezo wako, kama pesa au mkate kwa wasiyojiweza.
Pesa hizo kununuliwa ngombe akachinjwa ndee ya mui na kuliwa pamoja na mkate.
Sadaka hiyo haifai kupelekwa muini inaliwa huko huko ndee ya mui.
Sadaka hini hufanywa mpaka sasa.
Village Sacrifices for Disaster in Old Swahili
Village sacrifice is done when the village or the country is facing a certain disaster like outbreak of the disease, lack of rain, misunderstanding in the village, fighting, lack of rain and e.tc.
The sacrifice is done by all the villagers of that village or town. Everyone contribute money and for those who can not afford to pay money, they buy breads.
Then a big cow is purchased with that money, the cow is then taken round the whole village by the villagers themselves while praying until they reach a place outside the village, there the cow is slaughtered, cooked and eaten with breads.The meat is not allowed to be taken back to the village rather it is eaten outside of the village where the cow was slaughtered.
Prepared by Khadija Issa Twahir
Lamu Fort Museum
|Baby with wanja applied|
Wanja is applied to a babies face to hide the beauty face of the baby, it is done intentionally to avoid people recognizing the baby's face.
How Wanja is prepared
Wanja is prepared from an item called ‘pefu ya moto’. Pefu ya moto is burnt and the smoke is collected in a small plate, then put in a special bottle.
It is then applied with a thin metal stick. When applying on the eyes, it is good to apply when it is a little warm. The warmth helps to cure the eyes diseases.
|Wanja Metal Stick|
Muslims believe wanja protect someone from jealousy (ni dawa ya husda), and is applied by all Muslims in the world. Different countries and cultures have different kinds of wanja.
It is mainly applied by women and is sunna for men because Prophet Mohammed used to apply wanja.
The wanja from ‘pefu ya moto’ is pure wanja, and it is the wanja which was used during prophet-hood. This Wanja is pure because it is not mixed with any chemical.
Story by Khadija Issa, Lamu Fort Library